Choosing tags you should consider the following criteria:
- working frequency: 125-134 kHz (LF), 13,56 MHz (HF), 860-960 MHz (UHF);
- equipments security: devided into 3 classes – IP66, IP67, IP68;
- reading range: manual or stationary equipment;
- place and type of mounting of tag (transponder);
- implementation cost of identification system и of the equipment.
Chips are classified by:
- power source:
Active microchipsposess own source of power and dont depend on readers energy. They are readed at a large range up to 100 meters, but differentiate by high price and large dimensions.
Passive microchipsdont posess own source of power and work due to energy of a magnetic field, created by reader. Having saved up enough energy tag begins translation/reception of the signal in range of 0.20 – 10 meters. Reading range depends on specifications of reader. Advantage is almost unrestricted working lifespan and reasonable price. Disadvantage is in demand of more powerful RFID readers.
Semi-active (semi-passive) microchips also posess own source of power, which activates only for power supply of a microcircuit, not for signal translation to the reader.
- working frequency:
Low Frequency (LF)
Reading from a range of several centimeters and has the lowest data-transfering speed and price. Used in animal breeding for chipping of animals.
High Frequency (HF)
Reading from a range of up to 1 meter and works difficultly nearby metal due to reflection and appearing mushes. Used for payment service providers, logistics, persons identification. The primary problems are in functionality on a large ranges, in cases of high humidity. By price they are related to a middle price range.
Ultra High Frequency (UHF)
860-960 MHz (For RF: 863—868 MHz)
The most convenient range in up to date RFID systems, possessing the largest activity range. Reading from a range of up to 10 meters and more with data-transfering speed over 128 kb/s. The main RFID standart in logistics, Supply Chain Management (SCM), warehouse accounting and inventory for more than 10 years. Active UHF tags are used in real-time locating system (RTLS) UHF is cheaper then devices of LF and HF ranges, but generally ID system UHF is more expensive due to cost of other equipment.
- Self adhesive (mark, sticker, label) – for tagging of smooth dielectric surfaces. Theqy are sticked on as simple marks. Used for tagging goods, furniture, stock etc. Varieties: thermotransfer, polypropilen, thermo-eco, thermo-top marks.
- Non corpus-based on metal – designed as so internal antenna of the tag is remoted from metal for a distance, necessery for trouble-free data reading. In the majority of cases is meant to metall items accounting indoor.
- Corpus on metal – high endurance, shockproofed. For difficult usage enviroment. They perfectly deal with agressive influence of coal oil, water, salt fog and petroleum products.
- Special – work in conditions of high humidity and magnetic area. Confirms authenticity, provides relyble accounting. For animals, textile, clothes, laudries, drug packages, backup directories, wooden pallets, rail-road cars etc.
- protection index:
- IP66 – full protection from dust and strong water jets.
- IP67 – full protection from dust and water logging to a depth of up to 1 meter.
- IP68 – full protection from dust and waterproof, ability of underwater working.
- type of memory:
- Reading Only (RO) – data is recording once when the device is produced. They are meant only to identification without recording on a storage medium and they are improbable to falsify.
- Write Once Read Many (WORM) – tags contains a block of recording data, which is recurrently reading in following. Also unique ID is assigned.
- Read and Write(RW) – this tags contains ID and memory block for readind/recording of data. Data may be rewrited many times.
The most convenient microchip classification by types of:
- Reserved Memory:
This bank of memory stores password for deletion and access (both – 32 bit). Kill-password in case of non-zero value turns the tag off once for all without recovery, access-password is required for blocking/unblockind and availible only for writing in case of password knowledge. Includes solely information about 2 codes and passwords for them. The majority of users dont use this area of memory if there is no confidence requirement.
- EPC memory (Electronic Product Code):
This bank of memory stores e-code of the product on RFID tag. With this number tags differenciate by identification, determines initial parameters of accounting. The minimum lenth of ID is 96 bit of writable memory. There are tags where is allocated up to 240 bit in EPC from users memory. EPC requires rewriting , so chips frequently supplied withuot ID.
- TID-memory (Transponder ID):
This memory is used only for storaging of chip model and unique ID of the tags. In dependence of the tag, an extra ID and Serialized TID (which is used as a preventor of a falsification) of each tag are availeble. Generally this part of memory is not changing so tag ID and bank ID is protected from rewriting at the production stage and Serialized TID is in precence.
- User Memory:
Unnecessary extra bank of memory, if user requires a huger volume of data then provided by EPC’s extra memory. Generally wided volume is from 32-512 bit. Transponders with huge volume (up to 4-8 Kb) demands extra compatibility.